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TITLE 14 Evangelization of Nations

Canon 584 1. The Church, following the mandate of Christ to evangelize all nations, and moved by the grace and charity of the Holy Spirit, recognizes herself to be totally missionary. 2. The evangelization of the nations should be so done that, preserving the integrity of faith and morals, the Gospel can be expressed in the culture of individual peoples; namely, in catechetics, their own liturgical rites, in sacred art, in particular law, and, in short, the whole ecclesial life.

Canon 585 1. Each of the Churches sui iuris is to continually see that, through suitably prepared preachers sent by the competent authority according to the norms of the common law, the Gospel is preached in the whole world under the guidance of the Roman Pontiff. 2. The synod of bishops of the patriarchal Church or the council of hierarchs is to establish a commission to foster a more effective cooperation among all the eparchies in the missionary activity of the Church. 3. In the individual eparchies a priest is to be designated to effectively promote endeavors on behalf of the missions. 4. The Christian faithful are to promote among themselves and others knowledge and love for the missions, to pray for them, to inspire vocations and support them generously with their own means.

Canon 586 It is strictly forbidden to compel someone, to persuade him in an inappropriate way, or to allure him to join the Church; all the Christian faithful are to be concerned that the right to religious freedom is vindicated so that no one is driven away from the Church by adverse harassment.

Canon 587 1. Persons who desire to join the Church are to be admitted with liturgical ceremonies to the catechumenate, which is not a mere presentation of teachings and precepts, but a formation in all the Christian life and an apprenticeship duly lasting for sometime. 2. Persons who are enrolled in the catechumenate have the right to be admitted to the liturgy of the word and other liturgical celebrations not reserved to the Christian faithful. 3. It is the responsibility of the particular law to enact regulations by which the catechumenate is to be directed; these regulations are to determine what is to be expected from catechumens and what prerogatives are recognized as theirs.

Canon 588 Catechumens are free to enroll in whatever Church sui iuris they want, according to the norm of can. 30; however, it has to be provided that nothing stands in the way of their enrollment in the Church that is more appropriate to their culture.

Canon 589 Missionaries either native or non-native are to be equipped with the necessary skills and ability; they are to be suitably trained in missiology and missionary spirituality, as well as instructed in the history and culture of the peoples to be evangelized.

Canon 590 In missionary activity attention must be paid that the young Churches reach maturity in due time and be fully established so that, under the guidance of their own hierarchy, they can provide for themselves, and assume and fulfill the work of evangelization.

Canon 591 Missionaries are to zealously take steps that: (1) vocations to the sacred ministries are prudently promoted among the neophytes so that the young Churches abound before long in native clerics; (2) catechists are to be established so that, being valid cooperators of the sacred ministers, they can fittingly discharge their function in the work of evangelization and in liturgical activity; a just remuneration for the catechists is to be provided by particular law.

Canon 592 1. In missionary territories particular care has to be taken to promote forms of apostolate for the lay persons; to promote institutes of consecrated life through methods suited to their characteristics and culture; to establish, according to the needs, schools and other institutions of Christian education and cultural progress. 2. Likewise dialogue and cooperation with non-Christians is to be eagerly and prudently encouraged.

Canon 593 1. All the presbyters of whatever condition working in missionary territories and forming one presbyterate are to cooperate zealously in the work of evangelization. 2. They are to freely cooperate according to can. 908 with all other Christian missionaries so that together witness is given to Christ the Lord.

Canon 594 Missionary territories are those recognized as such by the Apostolic See. TITLE 15 The Ecclesiastical Magisterium

Canon 595 1. The Church, to whom Christ the Lord entrusted the deposit of faith so that, assisted by the Holy Spirit, it might reverently safeguard revealed truth, more closely examine it and faithfully proclaim and expound it, has the innate duty and right to preach the gospel to all nations, independent of any human power whatever. 2. To the Church belongs the right always and everywhere to announce moral principles, including those pertaining to the social order, and to make judgments on any human affairs to the extent that they are required by the fundamental rights of the human person or the salvation of souls.

Canon 596 The office of teaching in the name of the Church belongs only to bishops; but that function is shared, according to the norm of law, both by those who have been made collaborators of the bishops by sacred orders and by those who, though not in sacred orders, have received the mandate to teach.


Canon 597 1. The Roman Pontiff, in virtue of his office, possesses infallible teaching authority if, as supreme pastor and teacher of all the Christian faithful who is to confirm his fellow believers in the faith, he proclaims with a definitive act that a doctrine of faith or morals is to be held. 2. The college of bishops also possesses infallible teaching authority if the bishops, gathered in an ecumenical council, exercise their teaching authority, and, as teachers and judges of faith and morals for the universal Church, declare that a doctrine of faith or morals must be definitively held; they also exercise it scattered throughout the world but united in a bond of communion among themselves and with the successor of Peter when together with that same Roman Pontiff in their capacity as authentic teachers of faith and morals they agree on an opinion to be held as definitive. 3. No doctrine is understood to be infallibly defined unless it is clearly established as such.

Canon 598 All that is contained in the written word of God or in tradition, that is, in the one deposit of faith entrusted to the Church and also proposed as divinely revealed either by the solemn magisterium of the Church or by its ordinary and universal magisterium, must be believed with divine and catholic faith; it is manifested by the common adherence of the Christian faithful under the leadership of the sacred magisterium; therefore, all are bound to avoid any doctrines whatever which are contrary to these truths.

Canon 599 A religious obsequium of intellect and will, even if not the assent of faith, is to be paid to the teaching on faith or morals which the Roman Pontiff or the college of bishops enunciate when they exercise the authentic magisterium even if they do not intend to proclaim it with a definitive act; therefore the Christian faithful are to take care to avoid whatever is not in harmony with that teaching.

Canon 600 Although they do not enjoy infallible teaching authority, the bishops who are in communion with the head and members of the college, whether as individuals or gathered in synods or in particular councils, are authentic teachers and instructors of the faith for the faithful entrusted to their care; the faithful must adhere to the authentic teaching of their own bishops with a religious obsequium of soul.

Canon 601 Each Church has the task, which is to be accomplished in the first place by the patriarchs and the bishops in a manner adapted to each age and culture, of answering the perennial questions concerning the meaning of life and having examined the signs of the times in the light of the gospel, recommending Christian solutions to the more pressing problems, so that the light of Christ might shine everywhere more brightly illuminating all people.

Canon 602 In pastoral care besides the principles of the theological sciences the contributions of other sciences also are to be recognized and utilized, so that the Christian faithful may be led to a more conscious and reflective life of faith.

Canon 603 Literature and the arts, given their unique power of expressing and communicating the sense of faith, are to be promoted with appropriate freedom and cultural diversity.

Canon 604 Pastors of the Church above all are to take earnest care that amidst the varieties of doctrinal enunciations in the various Churches or cultures the same sense of faith is preserved and promoted, so that the integrity and unity of faith suffer no harm, rather that the catholicity of the Church is put in a better light through legitimate diversity.

Canon 605 It is the responsibility of bishops, particularly when gathered in synods or councils, and in a unique way of the Apostolic See to promote, preserve and conscientiously to defend the integrity and unity of faith and good morals, even disapproving, if need be, opinions that are contrary to them or warning about those things that can endanger them.


Canon 606 1. Theologians with their deeper understanding of the mystery of salvation and with their expertise in the sacred and related sciences as well as in current problems, have the role and duty, faithfully complying with the authentic magisterium of the Church, and, of equal importance, utilizing their freedom, to illumine the faith of the Church, to defend it and to contribute to doctrinal progress. 2. In the investigation of theological truths and in giving expression to them they are to be concerned for the building up of the faith community and are to cooperate skillfully with the bishops in their teaching office. 3. Those involved in theological studies in seminaries, universities and faculties of studies should strive to cooperate with those well versed in other fields of learning by sharing their insights and resources.

Canon 607 The ministry of the word of God, namely preaching, catechesis and all forms of Christian instruction, among which the liturgical homily should hold pride of place, is to be vitally nourished by the Sacred Scripture and is to be based on sacred tradition; the celebration of the word of God is to be constantly fostered.

Canon 608 Bishops, priests and deacons, each one according to the grade of his sacred order, have as their foremost duty the ministry of the word of God, which is to be exercised according to the norm of law; the other faithful, according to each one's aptitude, state of life and received mandate, are to take part willingly in this ministry.

Canon 609 The eparchial bishop is to supervise the preaching of the word of God in his territory, in keeping with common law.

Canon 610 1. Bishops have the right to preach the word of God everywhere, unless the eparchial bishop in a special case expressly forbids it. 2. Priests have the faculty to preach where they are legitimately sent or invited. 3. Deacons too have the same faculty, unless particular law has determined otherwise. 4. In extraordinary circumstances, especially to supply for the scarcity of clerics, the eparchial bishop also may give the mandate to preach even in church to other Christian faithful, observing can. 614, 4.

Canon 611 By virtue of their office, all who have been entrusted with the care of souls have the faculty to preach, and they can also invite to preach to those committed to their care any priest or, without prejudice to can. 610, 3, any deacon, unless these are legitimately prohibited.

Canon 612 1. In religious institutes or societies of common life in the manner of clerical religious of pontifical or patriarchal right, the major superiors are the moderators of preaching. 2. All superiors, even local ones, of whatever institute of consecrated life, can invite to preach to their own subjects any priest or, without prejudice to can. 610, 3, any deacon, unless these are legitimately prohibited.

Canon 613 Against the decree of a hierarch forbidding someone to preach there is recourse in devolutivo only, which must be resolved without delay.

Canon 614 1. The homily, in which during the course of the liturgical year the mysteries of faith and the norms of Christian living are expounded from Sacred Scripture, is strongly recommended as part of the liturgy itself. 2. Parish priests and rectors of churches have the obligation to take care that a homily is given at least during the Divine Liturgy on Sundays and feast days and that it is only omitted for a grave reason. 3. A pastor cannot habitually hand over to another his obligation of preaching to the people committed to his pastoral care except for a just reason approved by the local hierarch. 4. The homily is reserved to a priest or, according to norm of particular law, also to a deacon.

Canon 615 Eparchial bishops are to issue norms so that special series of sacred preaching are held at suitable times for the spiritual renewal of the Christian people

Canon 616 1. The preachers of the word of God should set aside words of human wisdom and abstruse themes and preach to the Christian faithful the entire mystery of Christ, who is the way, the truth and the life; let them show that earthly things and human institutions are also ordered, according to the plan of God the Creator, to the salvation of humanity, and that they can therefore make no small contribution to the building up of the Body of Christ. 2. Let them teach also the doctrine of the Church about the dignity of the human person and fundamental human rights, about family life, social and civil life, the sense of justice to be pursued in the world of work and of economics, a sense which can make for the building of peace on earth and bring about the progress of peoples.

Canon 617 Each Church sui iuris and particularly their bishops have the serious duty of providing catechesis, by which faith matures and the disciple of Christ is formed through a deeper and more systematic knowledge of the teaching of Christ and through an increasingly stronger commitment to the person of Christ.

Canon 618 Parents first of all are obliged to form their children in the faith and practice of the Christian life by word and example; godparents and those who take the place of parents are bound by an equivalent obligation.

Canon 619 Besides the Christian family, the parish itself and every ecclesial community have to ensure the catechetical formation of their members and their integration in the same community, by assuring those conditions in which what they learn can be lived to the full.


Canon 620 Associations and movements and groups of the Christian faithful, which pursue the practice of piety or direct the apostolate or charitable works and assistance, are to ensure the religious formation of their members under the guidance of the local hierarch.

Canon 621 1. The synod of bishops of the patriarchal Church or the council of hierarchs is competent to issue norms on catechetical formation, arranged in a catechetical directory, within the territorial boundaries of their own Church; they are to observe those things prescribed by the supreme authority of the Church. 2. In this directory the special character of the Eastern Churches is to be taken into account, so that the biblical and liturgical emphasis as well as the traditions of each Church sui iuris in patrology, hagiography, and even iconography are highlighted in conveying the catechesis. 3. Synods of bishops of the patriarchal Church or councils of hierarchs are to see to it that catechisms suited to various groups of faithful are prepared along with corresponding aids and means, and that the different catechetical initiatives are promoted and harmonized among themselves.

Canon 622 1. In each Church sui iuris there is to be a catechetical commission, which may be established together with the other Churches sui iuris for the same territory or socio-cultural region. 2. This commission is to avail itself of a catechetical center, which is to be of service to the same Churches in accomplishing their catechetical tasks in a coordinated and more efficacious way and to assure the formation, including the ongoing formation, of catechists.

Canon 623 1. It is the responsibility of the eparchial bishops to promote, direct, and moderate the catechetical formation in their eparchies with the utmost vigilance. 2. For this purpose the eparchial curia is to have an eparchial catechetical center.


Canon 624 1. The pastor should, keeping to the norms determined by competent authority, make the utmost effort to give catechesis to all persons entrusted to his pastoral care, whatever their age or condition. 2. Presbyters and deacons attached to the parish are bound to render their assistance to the pastors; members of religious institutes, however, are to assist in accordance with cann. 479 and 542. 3. Other Christian faithful, properly formed, are to willingly contribute their assistance in giving catechesis.

Canon 625 For ecumenical reasons catechesis should present the correct image of other Churches and ecclesial communities; however, great care is to be taken that the proper nature of Catholic catechesis is safeguarded.


Canon 626 Let all who are engaged in catechesis remember that they represent the Church, and that they have been sent to communicate the revealed word of God, not their own; they are therefore to present the entire doctrine of the Church, albeit adapted to those they are catechizing and responsive to the demands of their culture.

Canon 627 1. The responsibility for the education of children belongs primarily to their parents or to those who take their place. Therefore it is for them to educate their children, especially in piety toward God and love of neighbor, in the context of a Christian family that is illumined by faith and animated by mutual love. 2. Insofar as it is beyond their own resources to provide for the overall education of their children, it is also up to them to entrust others with a share of their educational task and to choose those means of education that are necessary or useful. 3. Parents are to enjoy true freedom in the choice of the means of education, without prejudice to can. 633; therefore the Christian faithful are to see that this right is recognized by the civil society and even fostered by suitable assistance in accordance with the requirements of justice.


Canon 628 1. The Church, which has generated new creatures through baptism, has the duty to care for their Catholic education together with parents. 2. All those who are entrusted with the care of souls must help parents in educating their children, make them aware of their rights and obligations and provide for the religious education especially of young people.

Canon 629 All educators are to pay heed to the formation of the whole human person in such a way that young people, having developed their physical, intellectual, and moral talents harmoniously, and well versed in the Christian virtues, may be disposed to knowing and loving God more perfectly, to evaluating human and moral values with right conscience and accepting them in true freedom, and, having developed a sense of justice and social responsibility, to pursuing loving fellowship with others.

Canon 630 1. The Christian faithful are to work generously so that the appropriate benefits of education and instruction can be extended to all people everywhere, with special concern for the less fortunate. 2. All the Christian faithful should support the initiatives of the Church in promoting education, especially in erecting, conducting and maintaining schools.

Canon 631 1. Among the various means of education the Catholic school is to be fostered with special care, and it should be the focus of the concern of the parents, of the teachers, and of the ecclesial community. 2. It is the right of the Church to establish and supervise schools of any type or level.

Canon 632 A school is not considered Catholic in law unless it was established as such by the eparchial bishop or by a superior ecclesiastical authority or has been recognized as such by them.

Canon 633 1. The eparchial bishop has the right to judge any school whatever and to decide whether it fulfills the requirements of Christian education or not; he has also the right to forbid the Christian faithful, for a grave reason, to attend a particular school. 2. Parents should send their children to Catholic schools, other things being equal.

Canon 634 1. The Catholic school has a particular obligation to create an atmosphere animated by the Gospel spirit of freedom and love in the school community, to help the young in the development of their own personality in such a way that at one and the same time they grow in accordance with that new creature into which they have been transformed through baptism, and it should so orient the whole of human culture to the message of salvation that the knowledge which the students gradually acquire of the world, of life and of humankind is illumined by faith. 2. It is up to the Catholic school to adapt these things to the particular circumstances under the supervision of the competent ecclesiastical authority, if for the most part its pupils are non-Catholics. 3. A Catholic school, no less than other schools, must pursue the human and social formation of the young people.


Canon 635 The eparchial bishop is to see to it that Catholic schools are established especially in those places where other schools are lacking or are inadequate; so too professional and technical schools as required especially by particular circumstances of place and time.

Canon 636 1. Catechetical formation in any school whatever is subject to the authority and vigilance of the eparchial bishop. 2. It is also his responsibility to name or approve the teachers of Catholic religion as well as to remove them or demand their removal, if necessary for reasons of faith or morals.

Canon 637 In those schools in which Catholic instruction is lacking or, in the judgment of the eparchial bishop, is deficient, true Catholic formation must be supplied for all the Catholic students.

Canon 638 1. The eparchial bishop has the right of visiting all the Catholic schools in his eparchy, excepting those schools meant exclusively for the students of institutes of consecrated life that are of pontifical or patriarchal right, and in any case without prejudice to the autonomy of those institutes of consecrated life as regards the management of their schools. 2. Where there are several eparchial bishops, the right of canonical visitation belongs to the one who founded or approved the school, unless it is stipulated otherwise in the statutes of foundation or in a special agreement made by the same bishops.

Canon 639 As it depends chiefly on the teachers whether a Catholic school achieves its purpose and realizes its undertakings, they should be outstanding in doctrine and exemplary in the witness of their lives; and they are to work in close collaboration chiefly with the parents but also with other schools.

Canon 640 1. The Catholic university aims at making the Christian view-point present by promoting a deeper study of all cultures in a public, stable and universal manner; therefore it consists of education of a higher order, research, reflection and teaching, in which the various areas of human knowledge are illumined by the light of the gospel. 2. Other institutes of higher education or autonomous Catholic faculties having the same object are equivalent to Catholic universities, however ecclesiastical universities and faculties dealt with in cann. 646-650, are not.


Canon 641 In Catholic universities each field of study is to be cultivated according to its own principles, its own method and the freedom of scientific inquiry that is proper to it, so that as time goes on a deeper understanding of these disciplines may be obtained, and by paying careful attention to contemporary problems and research the convergence of faith and reason in the one truth may be seen more clearly, and that persons outstanding in doctrine may be formed who are ready to fill the more responsible posts in society and to bear witness to their faith in the world.

Canon 642 1. A Catholic university is an institute of higher studies which is erected as such or is approved either by the higher administrative authority of a Church sui iuris after previous consultation of the Apostolic See or by the Apostolic See itself; such erection or approval must be by public document. 2. Within the territorial boundaries of a patriarchal Church this higher authority is the patriarch with the consent of the synod of bishops of the patriarchal Church.

Canon 643 In Catholic universities in which there is no faculty of theology, at least courses are to be given in theology adapted to the students of the various faculties.

Canon 644 Those who teach subjects regarding faith and morals in Catholic universities must possess a mandate of the ecclesiastical authority designated by those mentioned in can. 642; the same authority can remove this mandate for a serious reason especially if the teachers lack scientific or pedagogical suitability, probity, or integrity of doctrine.

Canon 645 It is the responsibility of hierarchs to provide, after due consultation, for hostels and Catholic university centers for other universities; there carefully chosen and prepared Christian faithful can offer spiritual and intellectual help to young university students on a permanent basis.

Canon 646 Hierarchs above all are to promote ecclesiastical universities and faculties, that is, those which deal chiefly with Christian revelation and sciences connected with it and so are closely linked with the Church's task of evangelization.

Canon 647 The aim of ecclesiastical universities and faculties is: (1) to inquire more deeply and scientifically into divine revelation and all that is related to it, to analyze and to structure systematically the truths of divine revelation, to study contemporary problems in its light, and to present these matters to the people of today in a way that is suited to their culture; (2) to give higher education to students of various disciplines according to Catholic doctrine and to prepare them properly for various apostolates or ministries or for teaching the same disciplines, and to promote ongoing formation.

Canon 648 Ecclesiastical universities and faculties are those that have been canonically erected or approved by competent ecclesiastical authority, cultivate and teach the sacred sciences and related subjects, and have the right to confer academic degrees with

Canonical effects.

Canon 649 The establishment of ecclesiastical universities and faculties is done by the Apostolic See or by the superior administrative authority, as in can. 642, together with the Apostolic See.


Canon 650 Regarding the statutes of the ecclesiastical universities and faculties, especially as regards the governance, administration, appointment and removal of teachers from office, program of studies, and conferral of academic degrees, the norms given by the Apostolic See are to be followed.

Canon 651 1. In the fulfillment of its task of announcing the Gospel everywhere the Church has to use apt means, and therefore it is necessary to vindicate the right everywhere to the use of the means of social communication and in particular to publish freely written materials. 2. All the Christian faithful for their part collaborate in this great mission of the Church, and support and foster the initiatives of this apostolate; moreover, let those especially who are experts in the production and the transmission of communications offer their caring help to the pastoral action of the bishops, and earnestly endeavor to imbue the use of the media with the spirit of Christ.

Canon 652 1. Eparchial bishops are to see that with the help of institutes of social communication the Christian faithful are taught to use the media critically and advantageously; they are to foster cooperation among such institutes, see to the formation of experts, and finally, promote good initiatives, praising and blessing in the first place good books, a policy that is more efficacious than the censure and condemnation of evil. 2. For the safeguarding of the integrity of faith and morals, the eparchial bishop, the synod of bishops of the patriarchal Church, the council of hierarchs, and the Apostolic See are competent to forbid the Christian faithful to use or to pass on to others means of social communication, to the extent that these are detrimental to that same integrity.

Canon 653 It is for the particular law to lay down more detailed norms about the use of radio, cinema, television and the like dealing with Catholic doctrine or morals.

Canon 654 The norms of common law on books apply also to any other writings whatever or messages reproduced by any technical means and intended for public distribution.

Canon 655 1. The Christian faithful ought to have easy access to Sacred Scriptures. Therefore suitable and correct translations, furnished with sufficient explanations, are to be prepared, where they are lacking under the care of the eparchial bishops, even in collaboration with other Christians, as far as this can be done properly and usefully. 2. Let all the Christian faithful, especially the pastors of souls, be concerned to spread copies of the bible, furnished with apt notes suited also for the use of non-Christians. 3. For liturgical and catechetical purposes only editions of the Sacred Scripture with ecclesiastical approval may be used; other editions must have at least ecclesiastical permission.

Canon 656 1. Only books with ecclesiastical approval may be used in liturgical celebrations. 2. Books of prayers or devotions, intended for either the public or the private use of the Christian faithful, are to have ecclesiastical permission.

Canon 657 1. The approval of liturgical texts, after prior review of the Apostolic See, is reserved in patriarchal Churches to the patriarch with the consent of the synod of bishops of the patriarchal Church, in metropolitan Churches sui iuris to the metropolitan with the consent of the council of hierarchs; in other Churches this right rests exclusively with the Apostolic See, and, within the limits set by it, to bishops and to their legitimately constituted assemblies. 2. The same authorities are also competent to approve the translations of these books meant for liturgical use, after sending a report to the Apostolic See in the case of patriarchal Churches and metropolitan Churches sui iuris. 3. To republish liturgical books or their translations intended even in part for liturgical use, it is required and suffices to establish their correspondence with the approved edition by an attestation of the hierarch referred to in can. 662, 1. 4. In making changes in liturgical texts, attention is to be paid to can. 40, 1.

Canon 658 1. Catechisms and other writings intended for catechetical instruction in schools of whatever kind and grade, and their translations, need ecclesiastical approval. 2. The same norm is to be applied also to other books dealing with faith and morals, if they are used as textbooks for catechetical instruction.

Canon 659 It is recommended that all writings whatever which explain the faith or morals of the Church have at least ecclesiastical permission, without prejudice to the prescriptions of institutes of consecrated life, which require more.

Canon 660 Unless there is a just and reasonable cause, no member of the Christian faithful may write in newspapers, magazines or periodicals which are accustomed to attack openly the Catholic religion or good morals; clerics and members of religious institutes moreover need the permission of those spoken of in can. 662.

Canon 661 1. Ecclesiastical permission, expressed only with the word imprimatur, means that the work is free from errors regarding Catholic faith and morals. 2. Approval granted by competent authority shows that the text is accepted by the Church or that the work is in accordance with the authentic doctrine of the Church. 3. A work that is in addition praised or blessed by the eparchial bishop or a superior authority means that it expresses well the authentic doctrine of the Church and therefore is to be recommended.

Canon 662 1. Ecclesiastical approval or permission to publish books may be granted, unless expressly stated otherwise in the law, either by the author's own local hierarch or by the hierarch of the place of publication, or finally by a superior authority having executive power over these persons or places. 2. In order to publish writings dealing with religious and moral topics, members of religious institutes need also the permission of their major superior, according to the norm of their typicon or statutes.


Canon 663 1. Permission to publish a work or its approval, praise, or blessing is valid only for the original text, but not for new editions or translations. 2. In case of editions of the Sacred Scriptures or other books requiring ecclesiastical approval by law, the approval legitimately granted by one hierarch is not enough for its use in another eparchy, but the explicit consent of the hierarch of that eparchy is required.

Canon 664 1. The local hierarch may abide by the judgment about books given by censors selected from the list drawn up by the synod of bishops of the patriarchal Church, or the council of hierarchs, or he may rely on others, according to his discretion; also a special commission of censors may be set up for the local hierarch, the synod of bishops of the patriarchal Church, or the council of hierarchs to consult. 2. The censors selected are to be outstanding for their knowledge, right doctrine and prudence; in carrying out their office they are to give their judgment without any partiality but in accordance with Catholic doctrine as proposed by the Church's authentic magisterium. 3. The censors must give their opinion in writing; if it is favorable, the hierarch may grant permission or approval, according to his discretion, expressly in his own name; otherwise he must inform the author of the reasons for the refusal.


Canon 665 1. Pastors and rectors of churches are to be watchful that in their churches are not displayed, sold or distributed either icons or images that are not in keeping with genuine sacred art or books that are not in harmony with the Christian religion or morals. 2. So also pastors and rectors of churches and directors of Catholic schools have to take care that shows of whatever type conducted under their sponsorship are selected with the sense of Christian discretion. 3. Let all the Christian faithful be careful not to bring spiritual harm upon themselves or others by buying, selling, reading, or passing on to others those things mentioned in 1.

Canon 666 1. The fruit of an author's intellectual efforts is under the protection of the law whether as the expression of the author's personality or as the source of patrimonial rights. 2. Under the protection of law are the texts of laws and the official acts of whatever ecclesiastical authority and of their authentic collections; and therefore they may not be republished without obtaining the permission of the same or superior authority, and observing the conditions laid down by it. 3. More detailed norms about this matter may be issued in the particular law of each Church sui iuris, in accordance with the civil laws concerning the rights of authors.